Source code for psychopy.logging

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Part of the PsychoPy library
# Copyright (C) 2002-2018 Jonathan Peirce (C) 2019-2021 Open Science Tools Ltd.
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

"""Provides functions for logging error and other messages to one or more
files and/or the console, using python's own logging module. Some warning
messages and error messages are generated by PsychoPy itself. The user can
generate more using the functions in this module.

There are various levels for logged messages with the following order of

When setting the level for a particular log target (e.g. LogFile)
the  user can set the minimum level that is required
for messages to enter the log. For example, setting a level of INFO will
result in INFO, EXP, DATA, WARNING and ERROR messages to be recorded but not
DEBUG messages.

By default, PsychoPy will record messages of WARNING level and above to
the console. The user can silence that by setting it to receive only CRITICAL
messages, (which PsychoPy doesn't use) using the commands::

    from psychopy import logging


# Much of the code below is based conceptually, if not syntactically, on the
# python logging module but it's simpler (no threading) and maintaining a
# stack of log entries for later writing (don't want files written while
# drawing)

from __future__ import absolute_import, print_function

from builtins import object
from past.builtins import basestring
from os import path
import atexit
import sys
import codecs
import locale
from psychopy import clock
from psychopy.constants import PY3

_packagePath = path.split(__file__)[0]

ERROR = 40
DATA = 25  # will be a custom level
EXP = 22  # info about the experiment might be less important than data info?
INFO = 20
DEBUG = 10

_levelNames = {
    DATA: 'DATA',
    EXP: 'EXP',
    INFO: 'INFO',
    'DATA': DATA,
    'EXP': EXP,
    'INFO': INFO,

_prefEncoding = locale.getpreferredencoding()

[docs]def getLevel(level): """Return the textual representation of logging level 'level'. If the level is one of the predefined levels (CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG) then you get the corresponding string. If you have associated levels with names using addLevelName then the name you have associated with 'level' is returned. If a numeric value corresponding to one of the defined levels is passed in, the corresponding string representation is returned. Otherwise, the string "Level %s" % level is returned. """ return _levelNames.get(level, "Level %s" % level)
[docs]def addLevel(level, levelName): """Associate 'levelName' with 'level'. This is used when converting levels to text during message formatting. """ _levelNames[level] = levelName _levelNames[levelName] = level
# global defaultClock defaultClock = clock.monotonicClock
[docs]def setDefaultClock(clock): """Set the default clock to be used to reference all logging times. Must be a :class:`psychopy.core.Clock` object. Beware that if you reset the clock during the experiment then the resets will be reflected here. That might be useful if you want your logs to be reset on each trial, but probably not. """ global defaultClock defaultClock = clock
class _LogEntry(object): def __init__(self, level, message, t=None, obj=None): super(_LogEntry, self).__init__() try: "%0.4f" % (t) except (ValueError, TypeError): raise ValueError("Value \"%s\" of log message \"%s\" could not be coerced to string from numeric" % (t, message)) self.t = t self.t_ms = t * 1000 self.level = level self.levelname = getLevel(level) self.message = message self.obj = obj
[docs]class LogFile(object): """A text stream to receive inputs from the logging system """ def __init__(self, f=None, level=WARNING, filemode='a', logger=None, encoding='utf8'): """Create a log file as a target for logged entries of a given level :parameters: - f: this could be a string to a path, that will be created if it doesn't exist. Alternatively this could be a file object, sys.stdout or any object that supports .write() and .flush() methods - level: The minimum level of importance that a message must have to be logged by this target. - filemode: 'a', 'w' Append or overwrite existing log file """ super(LogFile, self).__init__() # work out if this is a filename or a stream to write to if f is None: = 'stdout' elif hasattr(f, 'write'): = f elif isinstance(f, basestring): =, filemode, encoding) self.level = level if logger is None: logger = root # Can not use weak ref to logger, as sometimes this class # instance would be gc'ed before _Logger.__del__ # was complete (running .flush()). # This was causing following error when script closed: # Exception AttributeError: "'NoneType' object has no # attribute 'stdout'" in # <bound method _Logger.__del__ of # <psychopy.logging._Logger instance at 0x102e0d878>> ignored # So instead free logger ref in __del__ of this class, # so we know any log backlog can be flushed before it is gc'ed. self.logger = logger self.logger.addTarget(self)
[docs] def setLevel(self, level): """Set a new minimal level for the log file/stream """ if type(level) is not int: raise TypeError("LogFile.setLevel() should be given an int, which" "is usually one of logging.INFO (not") self.level = level self.logger._calcLowestTarget()
[docs] def write(self, txt): """Write directly to the log file (without using logging functions). Useful to send messages that only this file receives """ # find the current stdout if we're the console logger if == 'stdout': if PY3: stream = sys.stdout else: stream = codecs.getwriter(_prefEncoding)(sys.stdout) else: stream = # try to write try: stream.write(txt) except UnicodeEncodeError as e: # incompatible encoding of stdout? try: if hasattr(stream, 'reconfigure'): stream.reconfigure(encoding='utf-8') elif stream == sys.stdout: # try opening sys.stdout manually as a file sys.stdout = stream = open(sys.stdout.fileno(), mode='w', encoding='utf-8', buffering=1) stream.write(txt) # try again with the new encoding except Exception: print('Failed to reconfigure logger output encoding', e) try: stream.flush() except Exception: pass
[docs]class _Logger(object): """Maintains a set of log targets (text streams such as files of stdout) self.targets is a list of dicts {'stream':stream, 'level':level} """ def __init__(self, format="%(t).4f \t%(levelname)s \t%(message)s"): """The string-formatted elements %(xxxx)f can be used, where each xxxx is an attribute of the LogEntry. e.g. t, t_ms, level, levelname, message """ super(_Logger, self).__init__() self.targets = [] self.flushed = [] self.toFlush = [] self.format = format self.lowestTarget = 50 def __del__(self): self.flush() # unicode logged to coder output window can cause logger failure, with # error message pointing here. this is despite it being ok to log to # terminal or Builder output. proper fix: fix coder unicode bug #97 # (currently closed)
[docs] def addTarget(self, target): """Add a target, typically a :class:`~log.LogFile` to the logger """ self.targets.append(target) self._calcLowestTarget()
[docs] def removeTarget(self, target): """Remove a target, typically a :class:`~log.LogFile` from the logger """ if target in self.targets: self.targets.remove(target) self._calcLowestTarget()
def _calcLowestTarget(self): self.lowestTarget = 50 for target in self.targets: self.lowestTarget = min(self.lowestTarget, target.level)
[docs] def log(self, message, level, t=None, obj=None): """Add the `message` to the log stack at the appropriate `level` If no relevant targets (files or console) exist then the message is simply discarded. """ # check for at least one relevant logger if level < self.lowestTarget: return # check time if t is None: global defaultClock t = defaultClock.getTime() # add message to list self.toFlush.append( _LogEntry(t=t, level=level, message=message, obj=obj))
[docs] def flush(self): """Process all current messages to each target """ # loop through targets then entries in toFlush # so that stream.flush can be called just once formatted = {} # keep a dict - so only do the formatting once for target in self.targets: for thisEntry in self.toFlush: if thisEntry.level >= target.level: if not thisEntry in formatted: # convert the entry into a formatted string formatted[thisEntry] = self.format % thisEntry.__dict__ target.write(formatted[thisEntry] + '\n') if hasattr(, 'flush'): # finished processing entries - move them to self.flushed self.flushed.extend(self.toFlush) self.toFlush = [] # a new empty list
root = _Logger() console = LogFile()
[docs]def flush(logger=root): """Send current messages in the log to all targets """ logger.flush()
# make sure this function gets called as python closes atexit.register(flush)
[docs]def critical(msg, t=None, obj=None): """log.critical(message) Send the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.CRITICAL` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=CRITICAL, t=t, obj=obj)
fatal = critical
[docs]def error(msg, t=None, obj=None): """log.error(message) Send the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.ERROR` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=ERROR, t=t, obj=obj)
[docs]def warning(msg, t=None, obj=None): """log.warning(message) Sends the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.WARNING` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=WARNING, t=t, obj=obj)
warn = warning
[docs]def data(msg, t=None, obj=None): """Log a message about data collection (e.g. a key press) usage:: Sends the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.DATA` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=DATA, t=t, obj=obj)
[docs]def exp(msg, t=None, obj=None): """Log a message about the experiment (e.g. a new trial, or end of a stimulus) usage:: log.exp(message) Sends the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.EXP` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=EXP, t=t, obj=obj)
[docs]def info(msg, t=None, obj=None): """Log some information - maybe useful, maybe not usage:: Sends the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.INFO` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=INFO, t=t, obj=obj)
[docs]def debug(msg, t=None, obj=None): """Log a debugging message (not likely to be wanted once experiment is finalised) usage:: log.debug(message) Sends the message to any receiver of logging info (e.g. a LogFile) of level `log.DEBUG` or higher """ root.log(msg, level=DEBUG, t=t, obj=obj)
[docs]def log(msg, level, t=None, obj=None): """Log a message usage:: log(level, msg, t=t, obj=obj) Log the msg, at a given level on the root logger """ root.log(msg, level=level, t=t, obj=obj)

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